COVID-19 Vaccines Facts
3 Types of COVID-19 Vaccines
It takes about 2 weeks after your final dose for your body to be fully protected against COVID-19 illness. COVID-19 vaccines protect people against severe illness, including disease caused by other variants circulating in the U.S.
- 2-Dose Pfizer-BioNTech. Review CDC's Comirnaty Overview and Safety
- 2-Dose Moderna. Review CDC's Moderna Overview and Safety
- 1-Dose Johnson & Johnson/Janssen. Review CDC's J&J Overview and Safety
COVID-19 Vaccines for Children 5 - 11 years of age
Pfizer's pediatric COVID-19 vaccine is authorized for use in children ages 5-11 years. CDC recommends that all children older than 5 years old get vaccinated to help protect against COVID-19.
- Vaccinating children can help protect family members, including siblings who are not eligible for vaccination and family members who may be at increased risk of getting very sick if they are infected.
- Vaccination can also help keep children from getting seriously sick even if they do get COVID-19.
- Vaccinating children ages 5 years and older can help keep them in school and help them safely participate in sports, playdates, and other group activities.
Learn more from CDC about the pediatric COVID-19 vaccine, including safety information.
CDC advises people should receive a booster dose from a COVID-19 vaccine provider if they are age 12 and older and:
- it has been 5 months since their last dose of Pfizer or Moderna vaccine or
- it has been 2 months since they received a Johnson & Johnson vaccine
2nd Booster Dose
People 50 years and older may choose to get a second booster at least four months after your first booster. The second booster must be either the Pfizer or Moderna mRNA COVID-19 vaccine.
People ages 12 years and older who are moderately or severely immunocompromised may choose to receive a second booster dose using an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine at least 4 months after the first booster dose. Teens ages 12 to 17 years may only receive the Pfizer vaccine. People 18 years and older can choose to receive either a Pfizer or Moderna vaccine for your second booster dose.
People ages 18–49 years who are not moderately or severely immunocompromised and who received Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine as both their primary series dose and booster dose may receive a second booster dose using an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine at least 4 months after the first Janssen booster dose. Read the full CDC guidance.
Side effects usually start within a day or two and go away in a few days. It is normal to have side effects and is a sign of your immune system learning to fight the virus.
Common Side Effects
- Pain, redness, or swelling in the arm where you got the shot
- Tiredness, headache, muscle pain, chills, fever, or nausea.
If you have been infected with COVID-19, you should still get vaccinated. Immunity varies from person to person and you could still get the virus again. For example, studies show that some infected people with mild disease or no symptoms have low levels of antibodies. Unvaccinated people who got sick with COVID-19 then get vaccinated, have a strong response to vaccine and higher protection.
Additional COVID-19 Vaccine Resources
- How was the vaccine able to get developed so quickly?
- If I have recovered from COVID-19 and completed my isolation period, do I still need to get vaccinated with a COVID-19 vaccine?
- Do I need to be a U.S. citizen to get the vaccine?
- Will the vaccines have any effect on fertility?
- How do I become a vaccine provider?